6 Methods Of Fabric Testing Standards And The Impact

Fabric testing standards cover many regulations and requirements on many different aspects of the textile manufacturing industry. Ensuring textile products always adhere to standard practices will ensure that the quality of the products is always at the highest level. So what is this test standard, how important is it and what testing methods are there? Please take a look at the article below Dugarco for the most specific answer!

1. What is fabric testing standards?

Fabric testing standards is a term that represents different quality tests. They are performed on textile products from the sourcing of raw materials to the final product. Textile products must ensure clear inspection before releasing it to the market.

fabric testing standards
Overview of the Concept of fabric inspection standards

The standard for testing fabrics ensures that products retain their intended physical and chemical properties and will not cause harm to human health. This standard ensures the best quality of fabrics because fabrics are always tested for their ability to maintain color vibrancy, resistance to fraying, and disintegration before being delivered to the consumer. In addition, this standard is committed to not having any harmful chemicals in the fabric, avoiding damage to people.

2. The importance of fabric test standards

Here are a few reasons why fabric testing standards are so important to the textile and fabric manufacturing industry:

  • Set standards for quality and conformity testing of raw materials
  • Strictly control the production process to ensure the quality of finished products
  • Evaluation and quality assurance of the final product
what is fabric testing
Fabric inspection standards play a very important role
  • Investigate and identify defective materials or finished products
  • Establish a system of standards or benchmarks for the quality of the fabric manufacturing process
  • This standard is for research and development purposes
  • Help perfect the new product development process

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3. The method of fabric testing quality

There are different methods for assessing the quality of a wide range of yarn properties. These methods include testing for resistance to impact, abrasion, and chemical contaminants. Here are 6 fabric testing methods for fabric quality:

3.1. Physical testing

For the physical testing method on textiles, experts will check the physical properties of the fabric. The implication of this method is to collect a lot of physical data on a textile sample and verify that data so that consumers can be assured of its quality. During fabric testing according to fabric testing standards, fabric fibers will be evaluated on criteria such as weight, unit length, stiffness, fabric quantity for textile materials, coating, etc.

knitted fabric testing standards
Physical fabric testing method

3.2. Mechanical testing

According to fabric testing standards, mechanical fabric testing methods include shrinkage, stress, stress, bending, abrasion resistance, friction, and tearing. This method tests the breaking strength by testing the tension level to break the fabric and testing the tear strength under specific circumstances. In addition, this test is also used to check the abrasion when the fabric is rubbed.

how many types of fabric testing are there
Testing for fracture and tear strength is the main purpose of the mechanical method

3.3. Chemical testing

Chemical testing involves testing fabrics for harmful or dangerous chemical contaminants. Chemical contaminants to watch out for include carcinogenic drug ingredients, toxic heavy metals, pentachlorophenol, chlorine, halogen carriers, free formaldehyde, flame retardants, and softeners. In addition, this method tests the flammability of certain embroidery products. At fabric testing labs, when doing a burn test on a particular fabric, it shows us how quickly the flame will burn and spread.

cotton fabric test
Chemical test method to check fabric quality

Not only that, but the chemical test method is also used to test the pH and color fastness of fabrics by reacting to factors including light, heat, perspiration, or chlorination. This test is well suited to testing sportswear to ensure their optimal performance when the body is performing with quality. Finally, Umbrella products are also subject to the scrutiny of the number of fabrics and washes they undergo during testing and the required labeling on the finished product.

3.4. Test fabric durability

This is a method intended to determine the maximum force a fabric can withstand when it is subjected to continuous, controlled tension. According to the fabric testing standards for tests in this method, the tensile testing device pulls the fabric from different angles until it breaks. Fabric strength testing helps us determine a textile’s breaking point and how far it can be stretched and still get back into shape.

fabric testing labs
Fabric standard test method by continuous stretch fabric

3.5. Abrasion fabric test

By constant rubbing, experts will test the surface abrasion resistance of the fabric. There are two main methods used for abrasion testing according to fabric testing standards, namely the Wyzenbeek method and the Martindale method. The Wyzenbeek method is a method of stretching the material on a Wyzenbeek machine and continuously rubbing it back and forth with the abrasive material. The Martindale method is similar, but a piece of fabric will be attached and rubbed in the shape of an eight.

fabric testing methods
Testing fabric quality by an abrasion test method

3.6. Fabric pilling testing

For this method, quality professionals often assess the trend of textiles through ICI box pile driving. Woven patterns will be attached to special polyurethane tubes. The woven patterns are then placed in a stacking box and they are mixed for a predetermined number of turns.

knitted fabric testing standards
Fabric inspection by fabric pile method

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4. Some ASTM standards for fabric testing and ISO

Here are some common ASTM and ISO fabric testing standards for fabric quality testing:

  • Standard D1388: This standard includes the measurement of fabric stiffness properties, measurement of bending length, and calculation of flexural stiffness.
  • Standard D2261: This standard covers the measurement of the tear strength of textiles through the blade process (single tear). Performed using a constant expansion type (CRE) tensile tester.
  • Standard D2594: This standard includes the measurement of stretch and growth of knitted fabrics. These tests are for fabrics that require high applicability and have low-power stretch properties.
iso standards for fabric testing
Common ASTM and ISO standards in fabric quality inspection
  • Standard D5034: This standard determines the breaking strength and elongation of most textile fabrics through take-and-modify test procedures. The test is carried out on the wet condition of the fabric.
  • BS EN ISO 13935-1: Testing of seam properties of fabrics and manufactured textile products. In addition, This standard determines the maximum force when the seam breaks by the strip method.
  • BS EN ISO 13934-1: This standard tests the tensile properties of fabrics, determining maximum force and elongation at maximum force using the strip method.

5. The organization regulates fabric testing standards

Organizations that specify requirements in fabric testing standards include ISO (International Organization for Standardization) and ASTM International (formerly the American Society for Testing and Materials). In addition, other regional regulatory bodies are included. What this means is to bring standardization and commitment to good quality practices to the textile industry.

cotton fabric test
ISO and ASTM is an organization that regulates testing standards for textile products

The goal of standards-setting organizations is to ensure that the end product is consistently acceptable for its quality, no matter where it is manufactured. However, in some cases, government agencies may also make requirements for textiles. In the United States, the FTC is the organization that regulates aspects of fabric manufacturing such as garment labeling and eco-friendly claims.

6. Fabric testing equipment and conditions

Like the test methods, the applications and equipment used for textile inspection are equally diverse. There are specialized instruments available that can be used to verify almost any type of method. A common condition for the fabric to be tested is 22°C / 65% RH, this is intended to meet the ASTM & test specifications; ISO.

fabric pilling testing standards
Moisture control device for testing fabric properties

Quality professionals often use fabric testing standards to reconcile textile patterns, check color consistency, and measure product tensile strength. To meet this condition, we can use a humidity control device such as a rapid textile test chamber or a suspended sample chamber.

The above article is about fabric testing standards, including their importance, testing methods, and some common standards. Hopefully, this article can bring you more useful information about this standard. Please contact Dugarco if you need any questions answered!

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